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Monday, 23 September 2013

Multipath TCP connections

Just recently , read about an interesting technology in network programming which is implemented for the first time in a commercial setting, in the just  launched Apple iOS-7. It  uses e Multipath TCP connections for the voice activated personal assistant Siri, to improve the Siri user experience which does bulk of its processing on the cloud, hoping that multipath tcp would inprove responsiveness and/or error robustness in case of congested channels.

Multipath TCP connections would allow a device to use various available internet connections like 3G, WiFi, or ethernet(if its connected via laptop/PC which has internet conenction via ethernet) over the most efficient(least congested) connection, in turn giving the user a robust/error free experience. It could also send data concurrently over these multiple connections to provide greater throughput to the application which needs to connect from the device( phone, PC, tablet,..) to the cloud or a application server, thus decreasing latencies and response times, and increasing the overall responsiveness.

This concept of Multipath tcp connections was proposed first in 2008,  in a initiative named Trilogy Project.
There is a document talking about technical guidelines for Multipah TCP development here.

I think and hope that this implementation of multipath TCP in a commercial product should pave way for more devices and protocol stacks having this implementation. I believe and wish this technology helps many bandwidth hungry applications which are also sensitive to network errors due to congestion and packet drops. Although UDP is the protocol of choice for Realtime Audio/Video communication applications like Skype, Google hangouts; Network audio streaming, IPTV, network gaming,  but if various related players in  the industry try implementing a proof of concept solution for this technology in their systems, they can see if their solutions and systems are benefited in some way by using multipath TCP specification. There will be issues about whether it becomes adopted widely, if it resolves interoperability issues and becomes mainstream choice for all networked data communication applications, but nonetheless as a technologist, it excites me for sure. We shall see how it fares in due course of time.


Wednesday, 18 September 2013

Memory leaks, errors... plug that

Memory leak is the phenomenon when a dynamically allocated memory using malloc or new operator(C++) is not freed and returned to the language runtime/OS. This is a big nemesis in large programs which allocate a new block of  memory recurrently, maybe every time it is called , use more than one pointers to such memory and those pointers are passed as arguments to functions but that memory  freeing up does not happen at proper locations of the code at proper times, which causes a memory block to exist, but the pointer handle to refer that is lost.

Languages like C,C++ inherently(provided by the language specification) do not manage the automatic freeing up of the memory, so programmers have to free all such dynamically allocated memory themselves.
 Such memory leaks cause the usage of the memory in a system to grow if the process is left to run for long time(over night or over days depending upon how large/small and how quickly/slowly the memory is leaked..) and they are a programmers nemesis if they are present in the code.
There are many tools to help in finding if and where(which function/file) there is , and there could be a memory leak.

Valgrind is one of the tool(valgrind is really a set of tools ) which assists in finding memory leaks on a linux platform. Memcheck is the tool in the valgrind suite which helps here. It can analyse C, C++ , Java code and report definite memory leaks, possible leaks or such memory errors like accessing an array out of its allocated bounds, using uninitialized variable etc.

Below is a commandline I use most often to find run a memory leak check analysis on my code on linux:
valgrind --tool=memcheck --leak-check=full -v --track-origins=yes  --leak-check=full  --track-origins-yes  --log-file=valgrind.log --show-reachable=yes ./executable optionstoexecutable

Executing valgrind memcheck on my code, has saved me a lot of headache and debugging hours by assisting in finding run-time memory related issues in the code.

The generated valgrind.log file can have some of the below information. These is what I got from running valgrind , on one of my projects.

==2807== 1,347,584 bytes in 1,316 blocks are definitely lost in loss record 60 of 63
==2807==    at 0x4028876: malloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:236)
==2807==    by 0x808CE4B: SetBufSize(Buf2_tag&, int) (in service-x86-D)
==2807==    by 0x427187D: clone (clone.S:130)

Above log shows that there is a sure memory leak inside function SetBufSize()
The call order of functions is latest/last function call to earliest from top to bottom
i.e. malloc() is called by SetBufSize() which is involked by clone.
A quick code review of that helped catch that major issue of memory leak.

==1983== 864 bytes in 6 blocks are possibly lost in loss record 29 of 64
==1983==    at 0x402732C: calloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:467)
==1983==    by 0x4010C34: allocate_dtv (dl-tls.c:300)
==1983==    by 0x40113D8: _dl_allocate_tls (dl-tls.c:464)
==1983==    by 0x404946C: pthread_create@@GLIBC_2.1 (allocatestack.c:571)
==1983==    by 0x80B6A87: CSxThread::start() (in /home/ad17/p4/TM_ad17/depot/acbu/tropos/personal/dev-1.main.ad17_2/output/x86L/debug/bin/tm_service-X86L-D)

==1983==    by 0x41B3112: (below main) (libc-start.c:226)

This is the next serious level of error. Might be a real issue or might not be.
If the pointer to an dynamically allocated memory is changed/moved, to point to say middle of the allocated memory, it thinks that pointer is lost and flags this error. A code review of the indicated function to understand the pointer operations/arithmetic would throw some light as to whether you should be worried about this error or not.


==2807== 102,392 bytes in 1 blocks are still reachable in loss record 56 of 63
==2807==    at 0x402842F: operator new(unsigned int) (vg_replace_malloc.c:255)
==2807==    by 0x80A532B: MsgQueue::MsgQueue() (in service-x86-D)
==2807==    by 0x41B3112: (below main) (libc-start.c:226)

What above message means is that there is no actual memory leak as such. It means those are the one time memory allocations which are maintained throughout the runtime of the program. This is not any serious memory error.


==1983== Conditional jump or move depends on uninitialised value(s)
==1983==    at 0x80C5D80: MyClass::addRoute(Module_tag, Addr_tag const*, char const*) (in service-x86-D)
==1983==    by 0x80CD876: UdpForward (in service-x86-D)
==1983==    by 0x41B3112: (below main) (libc-start.c:226)

Above could be a issue or a false positive warning. What it is saying is there could be some variable used inside a condition check which it thinks could be uninitialized.




Tuesday, 10 September 2013

Solution to Python Challenge 2

Here is my very simple solution for this python challenge, using  nothing but string functions.
As one comment mentioned, it could be also done using regular expressions, which is again a separate topic and we will see usage of regular expression module(re)  in python with help of some puzzles in coming posts.

Just copy the long input string in place of long input text here as a triple quoted string and assign it to messy_str as shown in second line of code below.
You can download the python file here and run it, if python is installed on your system.

 import string  
 messy_str = """long input text here"""  
 punc=string.punctuation  
 spaces=string.whitespace  
 clean_str=messy_str.translate(None,punc)  
 clean=clean_str.translate(None,spaces)  
 print clean


Monday, 9 September 2013

Python Challenge 2

Continuing the python challenges , this one looks complex when you first see it due to its sheer amount of input data, but think for a while and you realize  how beautiful python strings are.
Read the challenge here :
http://www.pythonchallenge.com/pc/def/ocr.html

Basically the problem is to find out characters hidden in a very very long input string. In the python challenge site, the input string is hidden in the html page source as a comment, but I have given that string below. Use this in your python code in a peculiar way and find the hidden text in it.

I loved this puzzle because when I was working on solving this, I was trying to figure out the logic and suddenly it occurred that the solution was possible just using string type in python and really nothing else.
Hint: help("string")
Will post my solution in few days.

Here is the long Input string:

%%$@_$^__#)^)&!_+]!*@&^}@[@%]()%+$&[(_@%+%$*^@$^!+]!&_#)_*}{}}!}_]$[%}@[{_@#_^{*
@##&{#&{&)*%(]{{([*}@[@&]+!!*{)!}{%+{))])[!^})+)$]#{*+^((@^@}$[**$&^{$!@#$%)!@(&
+^!{%_$&@^!}$_${)$_#)!({@!)(^}!*^&!$%_&&}&_#&@{)]{+)%*{&*%*&@%$+]!*__(#!*){%&@++
!_)^$&&%#+)}!@!)&^}**#!_$([$!$}#*^}$+&#[{*{}{((#$]{[$[$$()_#}!@}^@_&%^*!){*^^_$^
]@}#%[%!^[^_})+@&}{@*!(@$%$^)}[_!}(*}#}#___}!](@_{{(*#%!%%+*)^+#%}$+_]#}%!**#!^_
)@)$%%^{_%!@(&{!}$_$[)*!^&{}*#{!)@})!*{^&[&$#@)*@#@_@^_#*!@_#})+[^&!@*}^){%%{&#@
@{%(&{+(#^{@{)%_$[+}]$]^{^#(*}%)@$@}(#{_&]#%#]{_*({(])$%[!}#@@&_)([*]}$}&${^}@(%
(%[@%!}%*$}(*@)}){+@(%@*$&]*^*}*]&$[}*]%]+*}^!}*$^^_()#$^]++@__){&&+((#%+(&+){)$
%&&#($[[+##*%${)_!+{_[})%++)$#))]]]$]@]@($+{&%&%+!!!@]_]+])^*@$(@#${}}#}{%}#+{(@
#__+{{]${]!{(%${%%^)(_*_@+)$]$#_@$)]](}{}$(}*%+!}#+)$%$}+#@*&^{##}+@(%[*@_}{(^]^
+_*{@+[$!!@%$+{_&(#^(([&[][[&@#+}_]&&]}^*&$&)#_^$@$((%)}+{}$#+{+^}&[#[#_+${#[#]{
(@@[%}[}$%+*#$+[%(**!$+@$@&+$_$#!_&&&&{***+)}][}#^!%#&$*)$!%}*&#}}##(^_%^]{+]&&]
}^]#^(}@]&$]*_][])$]{_+})^_}]))()^&)(!*![!&}{][(]})[(*^}$&$_@^$)#${%[$_]!^]}}}*+
*^_(+}^)(%(}{&)[}!$$&&+}&[{%}^+#$]@)^&*%{@}]&!%*%$*&][}&{$&*@{@#]$*_[]%%[#]#*%)@
$_^#%$!{#]^$}%^@^+{($!^($%)]+&}+$@[$*)*&)*%!_!!+@&^*{}%#&{}$!(*^*@]@@})[($!)]]})
})(&+##]##%&##$}@{#_])*%(*(@$)}[+(+_)!{{#^{_@)!&)$}@^^^[$#__+$^!*#%%]_!#$]$&+^}%
@])])%}]#$((^+{{@++^])$^*#[$}*]}}{)@+)[_}*@^%#]]#+()+)(]_[!!!)+)$+&@@])!}+*%]$[]
&&[@+$_&#[$!$${}{%[]#+@)*!#)*!{$#*$%}[(&@$&_@($$]]]_[+(#@}&_}+]@$#_+](}^})!@@}@)
}^]^]*}]+&(@@!!](*@#(++*)]!(^$})&_^@+]{#_@*%^[$[%&_%@%_![&&]&_@*#_}[{{])^$[_$_&_
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$^!@@}_())%(&$%]]{{{@+!&%@(^!+*{%[*[!]){(#$@)(^{]%[&*(&!{&}!%*$)*]]$%(__[}_+&)!(
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%@^}&[^]$^(%(&&+!{^!)!#%{[^&+@[+*!])}^])+[&[)}!}{$)}!)^#)^+}+${][!%_%$%&%$)){*_&
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](%$()%!]+}_([](@[^&@{][%])*]{^@@{#$*{!^#)$&!)!%_}&[(*#[[&^_&!_&!@#_$*__@{_#%&#}
@@+[+&%&$[%[@@(@!_&&%#__!@{$#&@[*($]*](&&{}#!^^$[%&{+%}]_}!#([}^{{**@*($[[#[%}*#
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@])(]){)#_$_)[$!({@#$#^#_&^(_%(*}^%$]+$%&%{{!{]}]$*@_&%(&&{)*]^}&}^&[@)++]!(#[([
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